acceptance approach

podejście akceptujące

Based on the hypothesis that although stutterers may not have a choice as to whether or not they stutter, they do have a choice as to how they stutter. Accordingly, stuttering can be fully accepted, since it is possible to stutter in a variety of ways, including fluent stuttering.

accessory behaviors (secondary behaviors or symptoms)

zachowania dodatkowe, współzachwania (zachowania lub symptomy wtórne)

The abnormal actions and behaviors exhibited by the stutterer in attempting to avoid and/or escape from the core behaviors of stuttering. Avoidance behaviors include such things as pausing, postponing, using gestural timing devices or verbal starters, and trying to disguise the stuttering. Escape behaviors used to interrupt the stuttering and gain release from moments of stuttering include movements such as eye blinks, arm swinging, grim aces, head and jaw jerks, finger snapping, throat clearing and hand/finger tapping, etc.


acquired stuttering

jąkanie nabyte

Acquired stuttering is a general term referring to a type of fluency impairment that arises secondary to a specific causal event such as stroke, head trauma, neurodegenerative disease, introduction of a pharmacological agent, or significant psycho-emotional stress. Behavioral symptoms are similar to those of developmental stuttering; however, individual disfluency profiles vary widely and may include behaviors not typically observed in developmental stuttering, for example, stuttering while singing.


adaptation effect

efekt adaptacyjny

A temporary reduction in the frequency and/or severity of stuttering behaviors resulting from repeated oral readings of the same or highly similar verbal material.


adjacency effect

efekt bliskości (sąsiedztwa)

During repeated oral readings of the same material, when the previously stuttered words have been omitted from the passage, there is a tendency for stuttering to occur on words that are adjacent to where stuttering previously occurred during the earlier readings.




Clinical programs that emphasize helping the stutterer learn to cope with stuttering and become desensitized to stuttering ask the client to advertise his stuttering by doing a lot of voluntary stuttering in public.


anticipatory behaviors

zachowania antycypowane

Those behaviors in which the stutterer engages in an attempt to avoid, disguise or otherwise prevent stuttering anticipatory emotions. Those anticipatory feelings, emotions or attitudinal reactions that result from the stutterer’s dread of feared sounds, words, situations or interpersonal relationships.


anticipatory emotions

emocje antycypowane

Those anticipatory feelings, emotions or attitudinal
reactions that result from the stutterer’s dread of feared sounds, words,
situations or interpersonal relationships.


anticipatory struggle

wysiłek antycypowany

The anticipatory-struggle hypothesis, which permits a wide array of etiological possibilities, suggests that stuttering involves both the prior anticipation and expectation that speech is a difficult task to perform, as well as the tensions, fragmentations and struggle (effort) associated with attempts to gain release from the moment of stuttering itself.


approach-avoidance conflict

konflikt wewnętrzny

This term describes the conflict which the stutterer experiences as he approaches a feared word or situation. His desire for avoidance of verbal difficulty struggles for mastery against his desire for speaking, and the conflict may be expressed overtly in stuttering behaviors that interfere with speaking. The stutterer is caught in a conflict where he wants to talk and communicate but wants to avoid stuttering: at the same time, he wants to not stutter, but not abandon communication.



American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (Amerykańskie Stowarzyszenie Słuchu i Mowy)

avoidance behaviors

zachowania unikowe

Avoidance behaviors are classified as a secondary behavior of stuttering. They are behaviors used to avoid the moment of stuttering; including circumlocution, interjections, the use of starter phrases, etc.




A block is when there is a cessation of airflow or voicing, often paired with stopped movement of the articulators. Examples include: Block with Posturing: A cessation of airflow observed with open mouth postured in the position for the initial sound of the word.



anulowanie, poprawka, modyfikacja po bloku

dokończenie słowa oraz powtórzenie go po raz drugi, z łagodnym przejściem


omówienie, peryfraza

Circumlocution is a secondary behavior of stuttering. It involves a person knowing what word they would like to say, but describing the word instead of saying the target word in order to avoid a moment of stuttering.


continuous phonation

fonacja ciągła

core behavior

zachowania podstawowe

The core behaviors of stuttering, which are the types of dysfluencies a person who stutters cannot control, including repetitions, prolongations and blocks.


covert behaviors

zachowania skrywane

covert features

cechy skrywane

Unlike the overt behaviors of stuttering which can be seen and/or heard and are relatively easy to measure in terms of their frequency, intensity, duration, and type, the covert behaviors are not openly shown and less easily determined. They include such cognitive and emotional factors as fear, anxiety, negative emotion, shame, guilt and frustration, etc. These “concealed or
invisible” features are often difficult to determine. (See interiorized stuttering.)


delayed auditory feedback (DAF).

Opoźniona Słuchowa Informacja Zwrotna

When speaking under conditions of delayed auditory feedback, we hear what we have said a short time after we have said it. Most normally fluent speakers become highly disfluent when
exposed to DAF and many stutterers experience decreased stuttering under DAF. DAF can also be used clinically both to help establish fluency as well as control/modify the stuttering.


Demands and Capacities Model (DMC)

Model Wymagań i Możliwości

Demands and Capacities Model. This model states that stuttering is likely to occur when demands for fluent and continuous speech exceed the child’s capacities to perform at a level required by these demands. Factors that affect fluent speech include (1) motoric coordination, (2) linguistic ability, (3) social and emotional functioning, and (4) cognitive development. Clinically, attempts are made to reduce demands placed upon the child and increase the child’s capacities for dealing with them.




desensitization. Desensitization generally takes place at two levels: emotionaland behavioral. Emotionally, desensitization therapy attempts to help the client feel increasingly relaxed and comfortable in situations that previously were associated with fear, anxiety and other forms of negative emotion. Behaviorally, desensitization attempts to help the client tolerate periods of physical tension during moments of stuttering accompanied by tension and struggle. To accomplish desensitization, stutterers are often exposed to a hierarchy of increasingly stressful situations where they work to remain calm and relaxed in activities such as voluntary stuttering, pseudo-stuttering or faking.


developmental disfluencies/developmental hesitations

niepłynność rozwojowa / zawahania rozwojowe

developmental disfluencies/developmental hesitations. The develop – mental repetitions, prolongations and stumblings in the speech of children earning to talk. In the natural development of speech, while learning to talk, most children’s speech is marked by effortless developmental hesitations to some extent. Included in this category are word and phrase repetitions and such accessory vocalizations as the Interjection of “um” and “ah.” These “normal developmental” hesitations are particularly common during times of linguistic stress, which is a part of language learning, and situational stress under conditions of situational and interpersonal difficulty.


diagnosogenic theory

teoria diagnozogenna

diagnosogenic theory. The theory that “stuttering” as a clinical problem and as a definite disorder, was found to occur not before being diagnosed but after being diagnosed. According to this theory, the problem of stut ter ing arises when a listener, usually a parent, evaluates or classifies or diagnoses the child’s developmental hesitations, repetitions, and prolongations as stuttering, and reacts to them as a con se quence with concern and disapproval. As the child senses this concern and disapproval he reacts by speaking more hesitantly and with concern of his own, and finally, with the tensions and struggle involved in efforts to keep from hesitating or repeating.


disflyency (dysfluency)


dysfluency. Used interchangeably by some clinicians and differentially by others. Some feel that the prefix “dys-” should be used where there is reasonable suspicion of “organicity” to warrant the more medical terminology. The prefix “dis-” is used to denote mislearning and more psycho-emotional components. Other clinicians opt for the term “nonfluency.” In any event, the terms refer to speech which is not smooth or fluent. All speakers talk disfluently at times; i.e., they hesitate or stumble in varying degrees. All stutterers are disfluent, but not all disfluency is stuttering. For instance, “disfluency” could describe the developmental hesitations of a child learning to talk, or the disrhythmic breaks in the speech of an adult. Other disfluencies are associated with neuropathology such as the speech characteristics associated with apraxia, parkinsonism, multiple sclerosis, myesthenia gravis and others.




distraction. The diversion of attention: filling the mind with thoughts of other things so that the expectancy of stuttering is minimized. Keeping the anticipatory emotions of stuttering from consciousness, thus temporarily affecting release from fear of stuttering and the act of stuttering.




dysphonia. Impairment of the voice, manifested by hoarseness, breathiness or other defects of phonation due to organic, functional or psychogenic causes.


easy onset (gentle onset)

łągodny początek (start)

easy onset (gentle onset). Starting the voicing of a sound, syllable or word at a slow, smooth rate. The duration of each syllable within a word is stretched for up to two seconds. The easy onset is relaxed, and produced without effort: also referred to as gentle onset.


escape behaviors

zachowania ucieczkowe

escape behaviors. The behavioral reactions of a stutterer to release, interrupt or otherwise escape from a moment of stuttering. Since escape behaviors allow release from the unpleasant, aversive or noxious stimulus of stuttering, they are negatively reinforced and tend to persist.




extrovert. A person whose attention and interests are largely directed toward what is outside the self; one primarily interested in social or group activities and practical affairs; contrasted with “introvert.”


eye aversion

odwracanie wzroku (brak kontaktu wzrokowego)

The speaker averts their eyes while speaking or while avoiding or escaping a block.


eye contact

kontakt wzrokowy

eye contact. Looking the listener in the eye while talking to him. Generally a natural, although not a constant interaction, of the speaker’s eyes with the listener’s eyes. Maintaining eye contact is considered a technique in stuttering therapy recommended to help the stutterer combat feelings of shame, embarrassment or inadequacy.



lęk, obawa

fear. The apprehension of unpleasantness which arises when the stutterer consciously perceives situations which lead him to anticipate difficulty talking. This fear of difficulty may be and often is intense. It can and sometimes does temporarily paralyze thought and action. Stuttering is usually relatively proportionate to the amount of fear present. Stuttering fears may be of persons, of sounds or words, or of situations such as talking in groups or on the telephone, etc.


feared word/feared sound

słowa, dźwięki ("lękowe" – wzbudzające lęk)

feared word/feared sound. This term refers to a word or sound upon which the stutterer anticipates difficulty. Stutterers frequently attempt to avoid feared words and sounds by word substitutions, circumlocutions or paraphrasing the utterance.



sygnał zwrotny

feedback. The process of modifying one’s own responses based on either internal or external cues. Returning a portion of the output of a transmitted signal as input for self regulation. The reinforcing effect of the stutterer’s auditory or proprioceptive perceptions of his own speech. (Also see corrective feedback and delayed auditory feedback.)




Using words to avoid or postpone the moment of stuttering. For example: “The, um, uh, girl was playing outside.”




fixation. The maintenance of an articulatory or phonatory posture for an abnormal duration; the temporary arresting of the speech muscles in a rigid position. The airway is abnormally constricted, but not completely blocked. Fixations typically result in the production of sounds which may be both audible and vocalized (vvvvvine) or audible but not vocalized (fffffine.)




fluency. Fluent speech involves the ability to talk with normal levels of continuity, rate, rhythm and effort. Fluency involves the smoothness with which units of speech (sounds, syllables, words, phrases) flow together. Fluent speech flows easily and is usually made without effort. Abnormally broken, slow, or effortful speech is not fluent.


fluency disorder

zaburzenie płynności

fluency shaping

kształtowanie płynności

fluency shaping. Fluency shaping therapy is usually based on operant conditioning and programming principles; e.g., breath stream management, successive approximations, reinforcement of fluency targets such as fluency enhancing behaviors, etc. Some form of fluency is first established in a controlled stimulus situation. This fluency is reinforced and gradually modified to approximate normal conversational speech in the clinical setting. This speech is then transferred to the person’s daily speaking environment.


frustration tolerance

tolerancja frustracji

frustration tolerance. The capacity of the stutterer to resist feelings of frustration because of his inability to speak without difficulty; the ability to put up with or endure the communication handicaps resulting from not being able to talk freely.




genetic. Inherited, as determined through genes, but not necessarily congenitally present at birth. Some persons believe that stuttering, or at least some stuttering subtypes, may have an etiologic (causative) basis in genetically inherited traits, tendencies or predispositions.


gentle voice onset

łagodny początek (mowy)

group therapy

terpia grupowa

group therapy. The counseling of and among stutterers in a group, including the use of speech within such a social situation. The interchange of feelings, ideas and discussions about stuttering problems in a group gives the stutterer emotional release and helps him to develop better insights and understanding through a knowledge of how others react to their problems.


hand movement

ruch głową

Hand Movement. Movement of the hands while speaking or while avoiding or escaping a block.


hand to face movement

ruch dłonią przy twarzy

Movement of the hand to the face while speaking or when avoiding or escaping a block.


hard contact

twardy kontakt

hard contact. The result of tightness or tension in the muscles of the tongue and/or lips and/or jaw, etc., when the stutterer fears and attempts to say plosive consonant sounds such as p, b, t, d, k, g.


head movement

ruch głową

Movement of the head while speaking or when avoiding or escaping a block.


in-block correction

korekcja "podczas bloku", (wycofanie się)

in-block correction. This refers to a process the stutterer goes through to correct the production of a stuttered word while he is stuttering on it. See pull-out.



zasięg, częstość

incidence. The incidence of stuttering refers to how many people have stuttered at some time in their lives. Although researchers have used different methodologies to gather these data, and since they have used slightly different definitions of stuttering, it is estimated that about 5% of the population have experienced periods of stuttering lasting longer than six months. Estimates of incidence, inclusive of children who may have evidenced periods of stuttering lasting for only a short time period, are as high as 15%. (See prevalence.)




inhibition. Restraint on one’s ability to act by either conscious or subconscious processes: the partial checking or complete blocking of one impulse or mental process by another nearly simultaneous impulse or mental process. The fear of stuttering tends to inhibit the stutterer’s impulse or desire to speak.



wtrącenie, przerywnik

Interjecting a filler word to either delay the moment of stuttering or to make the following word easier to produce. For example: •“I went to the….um….store today.” •“She….uh….plays the guitar.”




introvert. An inward oriented personality; one who prefers his own thoughts and activities to association with others; one primarily interested or preoccupied with self. Contrasted with extrovert.



labialny (głoska wargowa)

labial. Pertaining to the lips; speech sounds requiring the use of the lip or lips such as “p, m, f, v.”




larynx. The primary source of phonation resulting from vocal fold vibration; the “voice box” which houses the vocal folds. Located at the top of the trachea, below the bone or bones which support the tongue and its muscles.


laterality theory

teoria leteralna

laterality theory. Refers to the theory that a shift in handedness or confused cerebral dominance is a factor in the cause or in the maintenance of stuttering. According to this theory, the use of the non-preferred hand in written and other skilled activities contributes to a cerebral instability affecting speech control in such a way as to generate stuttering. Laterality theory refers to insufficiently established dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over another.


learned behavior

zachowania wyuczone

learned behavior. Any relatively permanent change in a person’s behavior resulting from his reaction to or interaction with environmental influences or from reinforced practice: an acquired neuro-muscular, verbal, emotional, or other type of response to certain stimuli.


light articulatory contacts

delikatne kontakty artykulacyjne

light contact

delikatny kontakt

light contact. Loose, relaxed or non-tense contacts of the lips and/or tongue on plosive sounds. Contacts of the lips and/or tongue which are optimal for the production of speech sounds as contrasted to the hard, tense contacts which are often a part of a stuttering pattern.


lip pursing

zaciśnięcie warg

The speaker has observable tightness in the lips.



zarządzanie (skutecznością terapii)

maintenance. In stuttering usually refers to the continuation of improvement as related to the effectiveness of treatment. Procedures for keeping a desired learned behavior at a high level of frequency, e.g., procedures for preventing relapse.




masking. An interference with perception of a sound or pattern of sounds by simultaneously presenting another of a different frequency, intensity, quality, or pattern to one or both ears of the subject. Masking is usually presented via head phones and is used to interfere with the stutterer’s perception of his own voice. The usual effect, especially at sufficiently high levels of loudness, is increased fluency.


modifying the stuttering pattern

modyfikowanie wzorca jąkania

modifying the stuttering pattern. Refers to the stutterer changing what he does when he stutters. Clinicians suggest that the stutterer can deliberately change his stuttering behavior and learn to stutter in an easier manner. Clinical emphasis is reducing the overall severity of the stuttering rather than replacing it with fluent speech. In so modifying his stuttering pattern he learns to change his way of speaking and develop a style of talking which is less abnormal and free of excessive tensing. A basic fact revealed by laboratory and clinical studies is that the behavior called stuttering is modifiable. (See slide, pull-out, pro pri o captive monitoring, easy onset, cancellation, preparatory set.)




monitoring. A self-observation technique in which the stutterer seeks to become highly aware of the articulatory movements of his speech, as well as other behaviors which make up his characteristic and habitual pattern of stuttering. This would include continuous self-observation of the crutches and tricks he uses in his act of stuttering.



monotonna (mowa)

monotone. Voice characterized by little or no variation of pitch or loudness.


mouth tension

napięcie na ustach

There is increased tension in the mouth while speaking,
especially for certain words or sounds.




neurosis. A personality disorder generally characterized by anxiety, phobias, obsessions or compulsions which are irrational but nevertheless real to the possessor, and which are probably caused by interpersonal conflict. There is no gross personality disorganization, and there may not be any behavioral manifestations. Neu ro sis is a mental disorder that prevents the victim from dealing effectively with reality.


objective attitude

postawa obiektywna

objective attitude. Referring to the attitude that it is desirable for the stutterer to have toward his stuttering; a feeling relatively independent of one’s personal prejudices or apprehensions and not distorted by shame or embarrassment; the acceptance of his stuttering as a problem rather than a curse.



początek (start)

onset. The onset of stuttering usually occurs during childhood, with some cases of developmental stuttering occurring up through the time of puberty. The median age at onset is at about age four. Onset occurring after puberty is usually attributable to extreme cases of physical or psychological trauma.


operant conditioning

warunkowanie instrumentalne (sprawcze)

operant conditioning. The process by which the frequency of a response may be changed as a result of controlling its consequences. There are a variety of procedures in which a clinician can arrange for contingent stimulation to occur following a response. If the consequence is positive, the response (acquisition) should increase in frequency; if the consequence is negative, the response should decrease (extinction). This process is often theorized to be the way in which the voluntary behaviors of avoidance and escape are learned. Behaviorists consider this as the basic strategy for achieving behavior change. (Synonym: instrumental conditioning, Skinnerian conditioning.) (See conditioning.)




oscillation(s). In stuttering, the tremorous vibrations or repetitions of speech muscle movements temporarily interfering with ongoing speech, as opposed to the fixation or prolongation of an articulatory sound or posture.


overt behavior

zachowania jawne (widoczne)

overt behavior. Clearly visible and/or audible behavior. The opposite of covert.




pantomime. The art of conveying a thought or story by expressive bodily movements. As part of cancellation, some clinicians ask the stutterer to pantomime the moment of stuttering in order to identify its components and aid in desensitization.




Excessive pauses in frequency or duration to postpone or avoid the moment of stuttering.
For example: “I (pause…) did very well on my test.”




phobia. An excessive and objectively inappropriate degree of fear or dread. An anxiety reaction that is focused on a particular object or situation.




phonation. Vocalization; the act or process of producing voice; production of the voiced sounds of speech by means of vocal fold vibration.



wysoki (skrajny) dźwięk

pitch. The listener’s perception of the highness or lowness of sounds depending on the frequency of the vocal fold vibrations.


play therapy

terapia przez zabawę

play therapy. The use of play activities in psychotherapy or speech therapy with children, in which the child is given opportunities, within defined limits, for the free expression of socially or personally unacceptable feelings in the presence of an accepting therapist. In individual play therapy sessions the therapist may observe the child as he plays with materials (such as puppets, clay or toys) permitting him within reason to freely express emotional feelings and conflicts for purposes of catharsis or insight.



zwarto wybuchowa (głoska)

plosive. A speech sound made by impounding the air stream momentarily until pressure has been developed and then suddenly released, as in “p,b,t,d,k,g.”


post-block correction

korekta "po bloku" (anulowanie, poprawka)

post-block correction. This is a process the stutterer goes through to correct the production of a stuttered word after he has stuttered on it. See cancellation.


postponement behaviors

zachowania odwlekane

postponement behaviors. Any behavior or technique used to avoid stuttering by pausing, delaying or stalling the attempt to produce a feared sound or word in the hope that the fear will subside enough to allow production.


pre-block correction

korekta " przed blokiem"

pre-block correction. This is a process the stutterer goes through to prepare to produce a word on which he expects to stutter. See preparatory set.


preparatory set

zestaw przygotowawczy

preparatory set. The anticipatory response to the conditioned stimuli of an anticipated act of stuttering. The covert rehearsal behavior of the stutterer which he uses in getting ready for the difficulty which he anticipates. This procedure is called the pre-block correction by some clinicians.


primary stuttering

jąkanie pierwotne

primary stuttering. The label sometimes used to describe the speech of a young child when it is marked by repetitions and/or hesitations or prolongations which the observer regards as abnormal, but which do not seem to embarrass the child nor does the child seem to feel that these disfluencies constitute a difficulty or abnormality. Such disfluent speech occurs during the growth and development of the child’s ability to talk and may be observed to increase when the child is under certain kinds of emotional or communicative or linguistic stress. Many clinicians protest labeling such speech as stuttering, although it may be the beginning stage of a stuttering problem.




prolongation. As related to stuttering, the involuntary lengthening or prolonging of vocalized speech sounds (rrrrunning, aaaapple), or nonvocalized sounds (sssseven, ffffourteen). Sometimes refers to pro longa tion of an articulatory position, as when the person stops completely and holds his mouth in the position to say “p<pause>icture.” Prolongations are frequently accompanied by increases in loudness and/or pitch. As related to therapy, the easy voluntary prolongation of sounds and syllables on feared and non feared words is used quite extensively to modify the stuttering pattern. (See modifying the stuttering pattern; dysrhythmic phonation.)




A prolongation is when a sound within a word is extended longer than the amount of time typically used for production. Examples include: ◦Prolongation: “Mmmmountain” ◦Prolongation with Pitch and Loudness Rise: “Mmmmountain” (with a rise in pitch, loudness or both pitch and loudness)

prolonged speech

mowa przedłużona



pseudo-stuttering. Deliberately faked or false stuttering produced to imitate difficultly which a stutterer might experience. Sometimes used to aid in desensitization. (See voluntary stuttering.)




psychotherapy. The treatment of behavioral or emotional problems, such as stuttering, by counseling, or by reeducating and influencing the person’s mental approaches and his ways of thinking, or of evaluating his problems; any procedures intended to improve the condition of a person that are directed at a change in his mental approach to his problems; particularly his attitudes toward himself and his environment.



wycofanie się, korekta "podczas" bloku

pull-out. Based on the hypothesis that it is possible for a stutterer to pull out of difficulty during a moment of stuttering, this term refers to a voluntarily controlled, gradual, release from the stuttering moment. In pulling out of blocks, the stutterer does not let the original blocking run its course. Instead he makes a deliberate attempt to modify it before the release occurs and before the word is spoken. This procedure is called in-block correction by some clinicians.


PWS – Person Who Stutter

Osoba z jąkaniem

rate control

kontrola tempa (mówienia)

rate control. A technique with which the stutterer attempts to speak slowly and deliberately, often with each syllable given equal or nearly equal stress. The extent to which rate control is used to “facilitate fluency” or “repress stuttering” is highly controversial.




regression. As related to relapse, having more speech difficulty usually as a result of reverting back to an earlier faulty method of talking.



relapse. Pertaining to regression. See this term.




repetition. The repeating of a sound, syllable, word or phrase. Some clinicians differentiate between repetitions which are vocalized (l-l-lit) and nonvocalized (f-f-fit), and whether the syllable is correctly co-articulated (base-base-baseball) or contains the schwa vowel (buh-buh– baseball). Word repetitions may be of single syllable whole words (he-he-he has it) or words of more than one syllable (“David-David-David has it.”)




A repetition is when a whole word, part of a word, syllable, or several words are repeated one or more times within an utterance.

residual air

powietrze szczątkowe

residual air. Generally referred to as the amount of air remaining in the lungs following exhalation.




Stoppage typically in the middle of a sentence or thought, characterized by avoiding a block and going back to the beginning of the phrase or sentence. For Example: “I was going to the park (anticipated block)” voicing stops Revision- “I was going to the park and I saw a stray dog.”



rhythm. The overall melody, cadence and flow of speech, as influenced by such factors as syllable, stress and rate of articulation.


rhythm method

metoda rytmizacyjna

rhythm method. Attempts to help the stutterer speak fluently by altering the rhythm of speech through such means as singing or speaking in singsong manner, speaking in time with a regularly recurring rhythm such as to the best of a metronome, or timing the speech and syllable gestures to an arm swing.


secondary behavior

zachowania wtórne

Secondary behaviors are behaviors a person who stutters exhibits in response to the core behaviors.
These behaviors are developed in reaction to a moment of stuttering. Secondary behaviors can include avoidance or escape behaviors, circumlocution, using fillers and avoiding eye contact.


secondary stuttering

jąkanie wtórne

secondary stuttering. As opposed to primary and transitional stuttering, secondary stuttering is a hesitating or stumbling in uttering words with an awareness that this way of talking is abnormal and constitutes a difficulty; speech interruptions plus struggle and accessory behaviors, plus fear and avoidance reactions.


secondary symptomps

symptomy wtórne

actions which are not necessary for the production of speech: physical mannerisms such as eye blinking, fixations, nostril or facial grimaces, mouth protrusions or postures, covering your mouth with your hand, head movements or scratching, jaw jerks, ear pulling, finger snapping or tapping, coin jingling, knee slapping, foot tapping or shuffling, hand movements, or what have you

secondary symptoms

symptomy wtórne

secondary symptoms. The abnormal actions, behaviors and positions exhibited by a stutterer in trying to escape speech difficulty. These include movements such as eye blinks, arm swinging, grimaces, head and body jerks, finger snapping, clearing the throat, and hand tapping, etc. These refer to the movements which a stutterer characteristically and abnormally uses when approaching and escaping from a feared word and when struggling to release himself from the moment of stuttering. (See accessory behaviors.)




semantics. The scientific study of word meanings.




sensitivity. In the case of stutterers, usually refers to the tendency toward being easily upset, embarrassed or otherwise easily affected. Feelings of hypersensitivity may relate to both speech and non speech parameters.


situational fears

lęk sytuacyjny

situational fears. Concerns regarding certain places or events in which the speaker expects to have increased stuttering difficulty.




slide. Uttering the different sounds of a syllable with prolonged, slow motion transitions: moving slowly through the syllable or word. In the slide technique the stutterer prolongs slightly the initial sound and the transition to the rest of the word, keeping the release as smooth and gradual as possible, and maintaining sound throughout.


SLP – Speech Language Pathologist

terpeuta mowy

spasmodic (spastic) dysphonia

dysfonia spastyczna

spasmodic (spastic) dysphonia. Persons with spasmodic dysphonia experience intermittent blockages of phonation resulting from spasms of the adductor or abductor muscles of the larynx resulting in intermittently choked or strangled production of voice. This has been referred to as “stuttering/stammering of the vocal cords,” or “laryngeal stuttering.”


speech behavior

zachowanie mowy

speech production

wytwarzanie mowy

speech rate

tempo mowy

speech-language pathologist

terapeuta mowy

speech-language pathologist. A person professionally educated in the assessment, prevention and treatment of disorders of articulation, voice, language and fluency. Although terms such as speech correctionist, speech therapist and speech clinician are frequently used, the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association prefers use of the term Speech-Language Pathologist. Academic requirements include a master’s degree and the completion of the supervised clinical fellowship year following formal academic course work, and passing a national examination.


speech-language pathology

patologia mowy

speech-language pathology. The science or study of normal and disordered articulation, language, voice and fluency and their diagnosis and treatment.



jąkanie (ang. bryt.)

stammering. Synonymous with “stuttering.” (British usage.)




starter. Unlike stallers and postponements, starters are used to initiate or reinitiate forward movement into an utterance. This may involve the use of a stereotypic phrase such as “well, let me see” or “you know” in order to get a “running start.”




A word or phrase used frequently and inappropriately to start phonation and/or avoid the moment of stuttering.




stress. Psychologically, an emotional and cognitive factor that causes bodily or mental tension. Physically, as associated with effort, tension or struggle.


struggle behavior

zachowanie wysiłkowe

struggle behavior. This includes a wide range of secondary or accessory behaviors performed by the stutterer in attempt to escape from a moment of stuttering. Devices used to interrupt and release, involving excessive effort, tension, changes in pitch or loudness, and escape behaviors such as head-jerks, eye-blinks, arm movements and jaw jerks, etc.


Stuttered Speech Syndrome (SSS)

Zesól Mowy Jąkanej



stuttering. Stuttering is a communication disorder characterized by excessive involuntary disruptions in the smooth and rhythmic flow of speech, particularly when such disruptions consist of repetitions or prolongations of a sound or syllable, and when they are accompanied by emotions such as fear and anxiety, and behaviors such as avoidance and struggle.


stuttering modification

modyfikacja jąkania

stuttering pattern

wzorzec jąkania

stuttering pattern. In the case of the individual stutterer, refers to the particular way he experiences difficulty in talking, or the specific things he does and the order in which he does these things that interfere with his speaking; the particular sequence of reactions in his stuttering speech behavior.




syllable. A unit of spoken language consisting of a vowel, usually with one or more consonant sounds preceding and/or following it; v, vc, cv, cvc, ccvc, etc. (i.e., v= vowel c=consonant.)




tension. Mental, emotional, nervous or physical strain, often resulting in unnecessary intensity that disturbs normal functioning of the organs of speech.




therapy. The prevention, early intervention and treatment of any clinically significant condition such as stuttering.




tic. A sudden spasmodic and purposeless movement of some muscle or muscle group, particularly of the face, usually occurring under emotional stress. Possibly organic or psychogenic in origin.


time pressure

presja czasu

time pressure. At the moment the stutterer is expected to speak he often has an almost panicky feeling of haste and urgency. He feels he is under “time pressure” and with no time to lose, and so he has a somewhat compulsive feeling that he must speak instantly without allowing time for deliberate and relaxed expression.




transfer. The process of generalizing a newly acquired behavior to new and different environments: for example, the transfer of im proved fluency from the therapy room to the classroom or to the home or office. Sometimes referred to as “carry-over.”




tremor. A localized quivering or vibratory motion of a muscle or muscle group when an articulatory position is suddenly invested with localized hypertension.




vocal cords

struny głosowe

vocal cords. Synonymous with vocal folds. The opening and closing of the vocal folds is responsible for the production of laryngeal voicing.




voice. Sound produced by vibration of the vocal folds and modified by the resonators.


voice onset time (VOT)

czas odsunięcia dźwięczności

voice onset time (VOT). The length of time, measured in milli seconds, between the onset of an external signal such as a tone or light and the initiation of phonation.


voluntary stuttering

dobrowolne jąkanie

voluntary stuttering. This may refer to attempts made by the stutterer to imitate or duplicate as closely as possible, or with specific predetermined modifications, his usual, habitual, pattern of stuttering. It may also take the form of easy prolongations or relatively spontaneous and effortless repetitions of sounds, syllables or the word itself. This style of talking may be used as a deliberate replacement for the usual stuttering behavior and is intended to reduce fear of difficulty by voluntarily doing that which is dreaded. This conscious, purposeful stuttering is also designed to eliminate other avoidance reactions. For the purpose of desensitization some clinicians ask the stutterer to add tension and struggle to these voluntary stutterings in order to learn how to better cope with them. (See pseudo-stuttering.)




vowel. A voiced speech sound in which the oral part of the breath channel is not blocked and is not constricted enough to cause audible friction: broadly, the most prominent sound in a syllable.




whisper. Speech without vibration of the vocal cords.


word and situation avoidance

unikanie słów i sytuacji

word substitution

zamiana słów

word switch

zastępowanie słów

Use of a synonym to avoid or in anticipation of a block. (ECN) (BN) (FR) (2x)